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Towards carbon free economy and electricity: The puzzle of energycosts, sustainability and security based on willingness to pay


The objective of this paper is to analyse the main drivers of households’ acceptance of renewable energy sources and to assess their willingness to pay for extension of renewable energy sources in the electricity balance of a European Union Member State – Lithuania. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey. The contingent valuation method was applied. The study revealed that most of the respondents have some knowledge about specific renewable energy systems and their benefits. The rate of usage of micro-generation renewable energy technologies was found to be quite low (only 12% of households reported owning micro-generation renewable technologies). Mitigation of environmental impact is seen as an important motive for accepting renewable energy technologies. Willingness to pay for an increase in the share of renewables in electricity mix was estimated to sit in between 0.0153 and 0.0296 Eur/kWh or 12–23% extra (depending on the share of renewables in electricity mix).


Keywords: Renewable energy sources; Carbon free electricity; Acceptance; Willingness to pay; Households; Lithuania


Balezentis, T.; Streimikiene, D.; Mikalauskas, I.; Shen, Z. 2021. Towards carbon free economy and electricity: The puzzle of energy costs, sustainability and security based on willingness to pay. Energy. Vol. 214, 119081, ISSN 0360-5442;  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119081; [Elsevier BIOBASE; Environmental Periodicals Bibliography; Science Citation Index; Current Contents; Research Alert; BIOSIS Citation Index; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; Chemical Abstracts; Current Contents - Engineering, Computing & Technology; Engineering Index; INSPEC; Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences; Scopus; Middle Eastern & Central Asian Studies; Engineered Materials Abstracts; Environmental Engineering Abstracts; Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management; Materials Business File; METADEX; Pollution Abstracts; Current Contents; Science Citation Index Expanded; Web of Science; Composites Industry Abstracts; Corrosion Abstracts; Earthquake Engineering Abstracts; GeoRef; British & Irish Archaeological Bibliography; Bibliography of Asian Studies; CAB International; Academic Search (EBSCO); Computers & Applied Sciences Complete; Current Abstracts (EBSCO); Energy & Power Source; Environment Complete; Environment Index; TOC Premier; Public Affairs Information Service Bulletin; Compendex; Engineering Information Database EnCompass LIT (Elsevier); FLUIDEX; Engineering Village – GEOBASE; Wilson Applied Science and Technology Abstracts; OCLC Contents Alert; Advanced Polymers Abstracts; Aerospace & High Technology Database, Selective; ASFA2 – Ocean Technology, Policy and Non–Living Resources; Ceramic Abstracts; CSA Sustainability Science Abstracts (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts); CSA Technology Research Database; CSA Mechanical & Transportation Engineering Abstracts (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts); CSA Civil Engineering Abstracts; CSA Engineering Research Database (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts); CSA High Technology Research Database with Aerospace (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts)].


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