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Moksliniai projektai

Activity Analysis Framework for Structural Change–Productivity–Climate Nexus in Agriculture


Activity Analysis Framework for Structural Change–Productivity–Climate Nexus in Agriculture


The gains in productivity allow for a sustainable economic growth. At the European Union (EU) level, a flagship initiative under the Europe 2020 Strategy called A resource-efficient Europe and A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 have confirmed the aspirations for gains in productivity and climate change mitigation. The concept of sustainability, therefore, needs to be incorporated within the productivity analysis framework to provide appropriate support for evidence-based policies. Indeed, the goals of productivity and climate change mitigation have also been reflected in the other strategic documents and policies, e.g. the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU and UN post-2015 development agenda.

The agricultural sector is important in terms of food security, and the gains in productivity affect the profitability of agricultural producers and consumers’ food expenditures. The latest CAP reform in 2013 defined objectives such as enhanced competitiveness and improved sustainability for 2014-2020, which call for research focused on the productivity and identification of means for its improvements. The effects of the CAP-related support on the productivity need to be properly assessed. The objective of sustainability implies the need for tailored decision support tools incorporating environmental pressures into the analysis


This research is funded by the European Social Fund according to the activity ‘Improvement of researchers’ qualification by implementing world-class R&D projects’ of Measure  No. 09.3.3-LMT-K-712

Project Duration 2017–2021


Research Leader Dr Tomas Baležentis

Research Group:


  Mette Asmild


  Jens Leth Hougaard


  Irena Kriščiukaitienė


  Rasa Melnikienė


  Dalia Štreimikienė


  Nelė Jurkėnaitė


  Vida Dabkienė


  Mindaugas Butkus


 Justas Štreimikis


Research Project Specialist Agnė Žičkienė

Papers in Refereed Journals

  1. Dabkiene, V., Balezentis, T., Streimikiene, D. (2021). Development of agri-environmental footprint indicator using the FADN data: Tracking development of sustainable agricultural development in Eastern Europe. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 2121-2133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2021.05.017
  2. Dabkienė V., Baležentis T., Štreimikienė D. 2021. Reconciling the micro- and macro-perspective in agricultural energy efficiency analysis for sustainable development. Sustainable Development, https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2235
  3. Jurkėnaitė, N., Baležentis, T., & Štreimikienė, D. (2021). The sustainability prism of structural changes in the European Union agricultural system: The nexus between production, employment and energy emissions. Business Strategy and the Environment, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2879
  4. Baležentis, T.; Blancard, S.; Shen, Z.Y.; Štreimikienė, D. 2020. Analysis of Environmental Total Factor Productivity Evolution in European Agricultural Sector, Decision Sciences 52: 483-511. https://doi.org/10.1111/deci.12421
  5. Jurkėnaitė, N.; Baležentis, T. 2020. The ‘pure’ and structural contributions to the average farm size growth in the EU: The index decomposition approach, Ecological Indicators 117: 106614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106614
  6. Balezentis, T.; Sun, K. 2020. Measurement of Technical Inefficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth: A Semiparametric Stochastic Input Distance Frontier Approach and the Case of Lithuanian Dairy Farms, European Journal of Operational Research, 285: 1174–1188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2020.02.032
  7. Dabkiene,V.;Balezentis, T.; Streimikiene, D. 2020. Calculation of the carbon footprint for family farms using the Farm Accountancy Data Network: A case from Lithuania, Journal of Cleaner Production 262: 121509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121509
  8. Balezentis, T., Karagiannis, G. 2021. Aggregate Efficiency Dynamics in Lithuanian Dairy Farms. German Journal of Agricultural Economics 70(4), 251-264. https://doi.org/10.30430/gjae.2021.0211
  9. Baležentis, T.; Galnaitytė, A.; Kriščiukaitienė, I.; Namiotko, V.; Novickytė, L.; Streimikiene, D.; Melnikiene, R. 2019. Decomposing Dynamics in the Farm Profitability: An Application of Index Decomposition Analysis to Lithuanian FADN Sample. Sustainability 11(10), 2861. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102861
  10. Yan, Q.Y.; Zhao, F.; Wang, X.; Yang, G.L.; Baležentis, T.; Streimikiene, D. 2019. The network data envelopment analysis models for non-homogenous decision making units based on the sun network structure. Central European Journal of Operations Research 27(4), 1221–1244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10100-018-0560-9
  11. Yan, Q.; Wang, X.; Baležentis, T.; Streimikiene, D. 2018. Energy–economy–environmental (3E) performance of Chinese regions based on the data envelopment analysis model with mixed assumptions on disposability, Energy & Environment 29(5): 664–684. https://doi.org/10.1177/0958305X18757057
  12. Baležentienė, L.; Mikša, O.; Baležentis, T.; Streimikiene, D. 2019. Seasonal Net Carbon Exchange in Rotation Crops in the Temperate Climate of Central Lithuania. Sustainability 11, 1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071966
  13. Bathaei, A.; Mardani, A.; Baležentis, T.; Awang, S. R.; Streimikiene, D.; Fei, G. C.; Zakuan, N. 2019. Application of Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (ANP) and VIKOR for the Assessment of Green Agility Critical Success Factors in Dairy Companies. Symmetry 11(2), 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11020250



Baležentis, T., Štreimikienė, D., Jurkėnaitė, N., Dabkienė, V. (2021). Structural Change, Productivity, and Climate Nexus in Agriculture: An Eastern European Perspective. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76802-7


Presentations at Conferences

  1. DEA40, 2018 04 16–18, Aston University, Dynamic Efficiency under Investment Spikes in Lithuanian Cereal and Dairy Farms
  2. APPC2018 (Asia-Pacific Productivity Conference), Seoul National University, Seoul, 2018 07 04-06, Estimating tradeoff between economic growth and environmental impact: an application on European agricultural sector
  3. Industrial versus small farms – competitors or partners, December 10-12, 2018, Jachranka, Poland, Decomposing Dynamics in the Farm Profitability: An Application to Lithuanian FADN Sample
  4. Research for Rural Development 2019, Latvia, 2019 05 16, Lithuanian Family Farm Economic Sustainability: Does the Indicator Matter?
  5. EWEPA 2019. 10 - 13 June 2019, London, UK. Estimation of technical inefficiency and TFP growth via an input distance frontier with application to Lithuanian dairy farms
  6. The 30th European Conference on Operational Research EURO, 23rd - 26th June 2019, in UCD, Dublin. Structural change and aggregate efficiency in Lithuanian dairy farms: An application of the Olley-Pakes decomposition
  7. 3rd INFER Symposium on Agri-Tech Economics for Sustainable Futures. Towards better understanding of structural changes in EU agriculture: the index decomposition approach
  8. III International Science Conference SER 2020, September 17-19, 2020. Agri-environmental Footprint Index of Family Farms Using FADN Data: Methodology and Application
  9. 16th SDEWES conference, 10-15 October, 2021, Dubrovnik, Comparative analysis of energy efficiency in Lithuanian farms
  10. 16th SDEWES conference, 10-15 October, 2021, Dubrovnik, Structural Changes in the EU Agricultural System: The Sustainability Prism and Energy-induced Effects
  11. 16th SDEWES conference, 10-15 October, 2021, Dubrovnik, Shadow Pricing of Energy-related Carbon Emission in Agriculture: An Adaptive Approach
  12. 16th SDEWES conference, 10-15 October, 2021, Dubrovnik, What are the achievements of the European Union Member States towards Energy-Sustainable Agriculture: A Contribution to the Structural Efficiency Approach


Scientific Conferences

  1. Scientific Conference „Ekonomikos ir vadybos mokslo bei studijų inovatyvūs sprendimai“
  2. Scientific Conference „Darnus vystymasis: teorija ir praktika“
  3. 2nd Scientific Conference „Darnus vystymasis: teorija ir praktika“



Further Information:

Principal Researcher Dr Tomas Baležentis, (+370 5) 262 2459, tomas.balezentis@laei.lt


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