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Carbon dioxide emission decomposition along the gradient of economic development: The case of energy sustainability in the G7 and Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa


The G7 and Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have committed to greenhouse gas emission reduction according to targets set out in the Paris Agreement and Copenhagen Accord. The objective of this paper is to develop an index decomposition framework and apply it for comparison of the drivers behind carbon dioxide emission. The impact of economic and technological development on greenhouse gas emissions is assessed by applying the Kaya identity. The index decomposition analysis is carried out by applying the Shapley value. In this paper, we seek to compare the two groups of countries—G7 and BRICS—in regard to the underlying trends in the energy‐related carbon dioxide emission during 1990–2015. The comparison of these two groups for countries draws some light on the pathways of decarbonization of the economies in developing and developed countries. The time period covered spans over the sub‐periods of economic growth and decline. Energy intensity appeared as the major factor pushing the carbon dioxide emissions down in the developed countries (i.e., G7 group). The latter effect was much lower for the developing countries (i.e., BRICS group) and was offset by the affluence effect. Further development of the renewable energy is important for the developing countries in order to start exploiting the carbon factor effect.


Keywords: GHG emission, Kaya identity, index decomposition analysis, BRICS, G7.


Su, W., Wang, Y., Streimikiene, D., Balezentis, T., Zhang, C. 2020. Carbon dioxide emission decomposition along the gradient of economic development: The case of energy sustainability in the G7 and Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Sustainable Development. Vol. 28,Issue 4, p. 657–669; Online ISSN:1099-1719; https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2016; [ABI/INFORM Collection (ProQuest); AgBiotech News & Information (CABI); AgBiotechNet (CABI); Agricultural & Environmental Science Database (ProQuest); Business Premium Collection (ProQuest); CAB Abstracts® (CABI); Current Contents: Social & Behavioral Sciences (Clarivate Analytics); Environment Index (EBSCO Publishing); GeoArchive (Geosystems); GEOBASE (Elsevier); Geotitles (Geosystems); Global Health (CABI); Horticultural Science Abstracts (CABI); IBR & IBZ: International Bibliographies of Periodical Literature (KG Saur); Irrigation & Drainage Abstracts (CABI); Journal Citation Reports/Social Science Edition (Clarivate Analytics); Leisure Tourism Database (CABI); Leisure, Recreation & Tourism Abstracts (CABI); Materials Science & Engineering Database (ProQuest); Natural Science Collection (ProQuest); Plant Breeding Abstracts (CABI); Plant Genetic Resources Abstracts (CABI); Political Science Database (ProQuest); Postharvest News & Information (CABI); ProQuest; Proquest Business Collection (ProQuest); ProQuest Central (ProQuest); ProQuest Politics Collection (ProQuest); ProQuest Sociology Collection (ProQuest); Rural Development Abstracts (CABI); SciTech Premium Collection (ProQuest); SCOPUS (Elsevier); Social Science Premium Collection (ProQuest); Social Sciences Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics); Soils & Fertilizers Abstracts (CABI); Technology Collection (ProQuest); Tropical Diseases Bulletin (CABI); Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics); World Agricultural Economics & Rural Sociology Abstracts (CABI)].



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